Giới thiệu thêm 1 bài thuộc chủ đề Ngôn ngữ, 1 bài viết mang tính liệt kê, tổng hợp, phân loại, chứa đựng toàn bộ những gì bạn cần biết về Tiền tố - Hậu tố trong tiếng Anh (tiếp tục theo style All-in-one)
Nội dung bài viết được support rất nhiều bởi cuốn sách:
Cấu tạo từ Tiếng Anh căn bản & cách dùng - The Windy
Xin chân thành cám ơn!

PS: Thứ tự các Tiền tố - Hậu tố thường được sắp xếp theo alphabet, như vậy chỉ cần có quyển sách rùi tra cứu là xong, bài viết này muốn sắp xếp chúng theo các nhóm nghĩa và mức độ phổ biến!

Nội dung chính:
    I) Tiền tố
    II) Hậu tố
    III) Vừa là Tiền tố - vừa là Hậu tố

I) Tiền tố

1) ** NOT **

unhappy, unaware, unhappy, unhealthy, unnecessary, unemployed, unreal, unusual, unreliable, uncomfortable, unable, unbelievable, unacceptable, untouchable, unchangeable, uneven, unable, unaware, undemocratic, unemotional, unrealistic, unremarkable, unsafe
*+phân từ: unbeaten, unrehearsed, unbuilt, uninviting, unloved, unwritten
*+động từ: uncover, unlock, unbend, undress, unlearn, unleash, undue, unless, unnerve

     *thường đi với M,P: impolite, impossible, immortal

    *thường đi với L: illegal, illogic, illiterate

*nghĩa tồi, không tốt: ill-advised, ill-chosen, ill-informed, ill-timed
*chỉ sự khó chịu: ill-heath, ill-mannered, ill-starred

    *thường đi với R: irregular, irrelevant, irrepressible

*thường đi với A,C,D,S: indirect, informal, invisible, independent, inexperience, incorrect
(NOT: inference, insight)

dislike, disappear, discover, disqualify, disrepair, disadvantage, dishonest, discover, disagree

non-existent, non-smoke, non-profit, non-smoker, non-fiction, non-academic, non-aggressive, non-committal, non-competitive, non-violence, non-verbally

*sai: misunderstand, misinformation, mistake, misspell, mishear, misjudge, misconception, misbehavior, miscalculate, misdirect, misfortune, misinform, misinterpret, misplace, misprint, misquote, misread, mistreat, mistrust

     apolitical, asocial, atypical

*phản - đối lập: anti-capitalist, anti-colonial, anti-fascist, anti-nuclear, anti-racist, anti-war
*dùng trước tên người: anti-Thatcher
*ngăn ngừa: antibiotic, antidepressant, antidote, anti-tank, anti-cancer, anti-cholesterol, anti-burglar, anti-bacterial


2) ** Number **

     semicircle, semi-final, semiconscious, semi-precious, semi-skilled

     demi-god, demi-world

*hầu như: half-asleep, half-cooked, half-forgotten, half-grown, half-listening, half-finished
*1 phần: half-circle, half-cup, half-inch, half-length, half-mile, half-moon
*sắc tộc: half-German, half-Irish
*gia đình: half-brother, half-sister

     parachute, paradox, parameter

     monolithic, monotone

*2: double-check, double-decker, double-action, double-doors, double-edged, double-locked, double-page, double-sided
*lừa gạt: double-cross, double-talk

     bilingual, bisexual

     triangle, tripod, tricycle, tricolor

kilogram, kilohertz, kilometer
PS: macro--, micro--, nano--


3) ** Over -- All **

*rất: extra-special, extra-bright, extra-strong, extra-thin, extraordinary
*khác biệt: extra-currestria, extra-European, extracurricular, extra-terrestrial, extra-marital, extra-mural, extra-sensory

*nhiều quá: overdue, overjoyed, overrate, overoptimistic, overwork, overnight, overweight, overload, overtime, overeat, over-react, overgrown, overdose, over-anxious, overspend
*số đếm: over-fivers, over-sixties
*quyền lực: overthrow, overrides, overthrow, overpower, overcome, override, overrule

*quá mức: superabundant, super-cheap, supercharged, super-clever
*khả năng: supermarket, supercomputer
*vượt giới hạn: superman, superhuman, superfood, superstar, superimpose, supernatural, supersonic, superlative, supervise

too-easy, too-code, too-familiar, too-blond, too-clean, too-desperate, too-high, too-intimate, too-large, too-late, too-literal

     hyperactive, hypersensitive, hypersimple, hyperspace


4) ** Nhiều - 1 phần **

*1 vật mang toàn bộ đặc điểm của từ gốc: all-action, all-black, all-electric, all-steel, all-volunteer, all-wool
*kiểu loại: all-age, all-party, all-sports, all-weather
*sự tác động: all-loving, all-seeing

*tối đa: full-flavoured, full-grown, full-strength, full-speed
*toàn bộ: full-time, full-page, full-size, full-year

much-respected, much-needed, much-loved, much-publicized, much-abused, much-admired, much-beloved, much-changed, much-copied, much-improved, much-discussed, much-married, much-praised, much-tried

multicultural, multiple, multinational, multi-children, multi-coloured, multi-dimensional, multi-faith, multi-flavoured

     polysyllable, polygon, polycotton, polyneuritis

     part-owner, part-cooked, part-ownership, part-payment, part-exchange, part-time


5) ** Trước - Sau **

    *before: antenatal, anteroom, ante-date, ante-chamber, antecedent

*trước: forelegs, forearm, foredeck, forebrain, forehead
*dự đoán: forecast, forewarn, foresee, foreword, foremost, forebears, forefathers, foresee, foretaste

*trước: pre-match, pre-dinner, pre-war, pre-industrial, pre-adolescent, prefix, predetermine, pre-intermediate, prehistory
*động từ mới: preview, prevent, prejudge, predecease
*đã xảy ra: pre-arranged, pre-cooked, pre-order, pre-booked, preconceived, pre-cut, pre-paid, pre-plan

*sau: post-mortem, postpone, post-natal, post-election, post-ceremony, post-religious, post-surgery
*time: post-1960's, post-sixth-century
*thư tín: postman, postcard, post-box, post-office, post-service, postscript

*thời gian: after-school, after-sales
*kết quả, hậu quả: after-effects, after-care


6) ** Trên - Dưới **

*chưa: underdeveloped, underestimate, underemployed, under-equipped, underpay, undercook
*dưới: underwater, underage, underrate, underline, underweight, underground, under-soil, under-glass, undergrowth, underpass, underscore
*số đếm: under-fives, under-twenty-one
*cấp bậc, chức vụ: undergraduate, undergardener, under-librarian, under-butler, undertake, underworld, underwrite

*time: mid-June, mid-evening, mid-summer, mid-afternoon, mid-week, mid-century
*vị trí: mid-ocean, mid-harbour, midterm, midfielder, midway, midsummer, midair, midpoint, mid-road, mid-America
*hành động dang dở: mid-bite, mid-stride, mid-sentence, mid-flight, mid-career

*ở giữa: inter-city, international, inter-school, inter-state, intermediate, intergalactic
*sự liên kết: interconnect, interdependent, interlink, intertwine, interweave


     onshore, on-court, on-field, on-screen, on-stage, on-board

*di chuyển lên: uphill, upland, upriver, upstairs, up-country
*gia tăng: upgrade, update, upturn, upsurge
*phiền, quấy rầy: upset, uprising, uproar, upend

down-- --down (mục III)


7) ** Gia đình **

     step-brother, step-parent, step-child, stepdaughter, stepmother

    *gia đình: great-aunt, great-grandmother, great-nephew

*làm tại nhà: home-baked, home-bred, home-cooked, home-dyed, home-grown, home-made, home-produced
*nhà cửa: home-buyer, home-loving, home-centred, home-owner


8) ** Most common

     microeconomics, microscope, microbiology, microfilm, microwave, microbe

     macroeconomics, macrobiotic, macromolecule

     man-made, man-devised, man-destroying, man-eating, man-killer, man-hourly

    *forward: proceed, prowar, promote, propose, progress

     free-flowing, free-ranging, free-falling, free-floating, free-moving

     fresh-baked, fresh-blown, fresh-cut, fresh-fried, fresh-made, fresh-planted

     homosexual, homonuclear, homoplastic, homophobic, homograph

     devalue, defrost, derail, demotivate

ex-president, ex-boyfriend, ex-girlfriend, ex-lover, exterminate, ex-friend, ex-husband

*ánh sáng: photograph, photosynthesis
*nhiếp ảnh: photocopy, photofit, photogenic, photo-journalist, photo-novel

*tốt hơn: outrun, outclass, outdo, outgrow, outjump, outlast, outlive, outpace, outplay, out-vote, outweigh

     infrastructure, infrared, infrasonic, infraspecific

mini-skirt, minibus, mini-computer, mini-camera, mini-expedition, mini-city, mini-lecture, mini-market

rewind, retake, remake, remix, return, rediscover, rewrite, restart, reread, rename, rebuild, retest, re-examination, redistribution, re-allocated

     co-founder, cooperation, co-author

*máy móc: auto-timer, auto-cook, auto-reverse, auto-record
*tự vận động: autobiography, autograph, autobus, autodial, autopilot
*ô-tô: (automobile, automotive) auto-industry, autosport

*giai đoạn, bậc cấp: sub-category, sub-committee, sub-party, subdivision, subcontinent, subset, sub-contractor
*mức dưới: submerge, submarine,  subtitle, sub-aquatic
*hơn kém: substandard, subnormal, subhuman, subfertile
*quyền lực, kiểm soát: subject, subjective, subscribe, subscription

*tự làm: self-appointed, self-control, self-government, self-absorbed, self-protection, self-service, self-taught
*tự động: self-winding, self-cleaning, self-destruction, self-heating
*thái độ: self-assertive, self-assurance, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-confidence, self-possession, self-respect, self-satisfied, self-righteous, selfish, self-explanatory, self-evident, self-effacing, self-contained, self-confessed, self-centred, self-addressed

*đơn độc: unique, unilateral, unite, unity, unique
*phổ quát: universal, unisex, uniform

     transport, transnational, transatlantic

*sự di chuyển: cross-channel, cross-country, cross-frontier, cross-national
*liên quan đến nhiều người/vật: cross-cutural, cross-party, cross-reference

    *thêm vào *thường đi với B,M,P*: embark, embed, embitter, embody, empower

*thêm vào: enable, enclose, enclose, encourage, enrich, enliven, enlarge, endanger

*xảy ra liên tục: everlasting, ever-increasing, ever-available, ever-changing, ever-growing, ever-open, ever-present
*càng lúc càng nhiều: ever-bolder, ever-closer, ever-colder, ever-smaller, ever-stranger

     geographical, geography, geology

*gần như: near-perfect, near-disaster, near-black, near-wild, near-capacity, near-crisis, near-equal

*mới: newborn, new-hatched, new-baked, newfound, new-built, new-coined, new-cut, new-fashioned
*gần đây: new-generation, new-looking, new-style, new-smelling, new-look

newsletter, newspaper, newsagent, newsboy, newscast, newsdesk, newsfilm, newsworthy

*tốt: well-behaved, well-balanced, well-designed, well-built, well-established, well-educated
*số lượng: well-chewed, well-known, well-worn, well-oiled, well-loved, well-matured, well-populated
*chuẩn bị: well-trained, well-organized, well-cooked, well-fed, well-financed, well-publicized, well-read, well-watered
*thân thiện: well-disposed, well-meant, well-received, well-off, well-to-do, well-versed



    *nhiệt: thermometer, thermostat, thermodynamic

    circumstance, circumvent, circumnavigate

    epicentre, episcope, epidermis

II) Hậu tố

1) ** Người **

--or (V+):
*người: actor, supervisor, adjudicator, administrator, advisor, agitator, collector, commentator, competitor, conductor, investigator
*máy: calculator, compressor, elevator, escalator, reactor

--er (V+):
*người: worker, farmer, teacher, leader, printer, speaker, baker, driver, employer, reader, reporter, winner
*máy: computer, cooker, grinder, mixer, mower, recorder, roller
*hơn: higher, taller, bigger, brighter, colder, busier, cleverer, earlier, heavier, lovelier, luckier, prettier

--ist (V+):
*nghề nghiệp: typist, physicisist, scientist, botanist, cartoonist, dentist, economist, environmentalist, archaeologist, biologist, climatologist, geologist, gynaecologist
*chức vị: chairman, gentleman, nobleman, spokesman, statesman
*tín ngưỡng/cách cư xử: Atheist, feminist, optimist, pessimist, idealist, terrorist, activist, capitalist, communist, extremist
*âm nhạc: cellist, guitarist, oboist, pianist, saxophonist, violinist
*số người: eleven-man, two-man

*nghề nghiệp: fireman, barman, dairyman, policeman, repairman, salesman
*nơi làm việc, thiết bị: camel-man, camera-man, lighting-man
*xuất thân: Welshman, Chinaman, Scotsman

Irishwoman, barwoman, businesswoman, countrywoman, horsewoman, needlewoman, policewoman, saleswoman, sportswoman, Yachtswoman

*công việc: musician, mathematician, beautician, comedian, dietician, electrician, politician
*1 người đặc biệt: Elizabethian, Freudian, Shakespearean

--ant (V+=N):
*người: assistant, accountant, applicant, assailant, attendant, combatant
*gây tác dụng: depressant, determinant, pollutant, sealant
*Adj: abundant, adamant, arrogant, brilliant, constant, buoyant, constant, dominant, elegant

*người: student
*absorbent, dependent, different, existent, insistent, persistent

--ess (N+): 
*giống cái: actress, waitress, authoress, Goddess, heiress, lioness, mistress, Princess

     auctioneer, volunteer, engineer, profiteer

*người nhận Verb: appointee, employee, evacuee, examinee, interviewee, nominee, payee, trainee, trustee
*người thực hiện Verb: absentee, disvorcee, escapee, retiree

*người/ngôn ngữ: Balinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Vietnamese, Chinese
*thổ ngữ đặc trưng: journalese, officialese, Americanese

*người: egghead, muddlehead, pinhead, squarehead
*phần trên: bed-head, spearhead
*khởi điểm: bridgehead, letterhead, stairhead, wellhead

*N cùng 1 nơi: flatmate, workmate, classmate, schoolmate, team-mate, workmate

*nghề nghiệp: chairperson, newsperson, spokesperson
*number: twelve-person, four-person


2) --Y

*đặc điểm: dirty, smoky, bloody, bulky, bushy, cloudy, dusty, fatty, foggy, hairy, leafy, muddy, rainy, sketchy, smoky, snowy, stumpy, thirsty, worthy
*màu sắc: pinky, yellowy, plummy, greeny
*tên thân mật: Janey, Danny, doggy
*cagey, cheeky, crafty, dreamy, earthy, handy, heady, husky, lofty, musty, phoney, roomy, scanty, shifty, steady, stuffy, touchy, wary

--ary: of or relating to
*budgetary, planetary, military, honorary, cautionary, complimentary, customary, dietary, disciplinary, imaginary
*người: actuary, adversary, antiquary, beneficiary
*arbitrary, binary, comtemporary, contrary, primary, solitary, library, seminary

*tình trạng, phẩm chất: accuracy, dependency, diplomacy, expectancy, fluency, hesitancy, illiteracy
*chức vị: Baronetcy, candidacy, captaincy, Presidency

*Adv: slowly, hardly, softly, happily, crazily, madly, badly, cheaply, clearly, directly, easily, equally, exactly, finally, gradually, happily
*Adv tần suất: daily, fortnightly, hardly, hourly, weekly, yearly
*Adj: costly, deadly, earthly, easterly, elderly
*phẩm chất: soldierly, musicianly, neighbourly

*N chỉ hành động: discovery, cookery, delivery, discovery, embroidery, forgery, mockery, recovery, robbery
*cách cư xử: bravery, foolery, prudery, roguery, snobbery, thuggery
*nơi chốn: bakery, creamery, nursery, orangery
*tập hợp, nhóm: finery, greenery, jewellery, machinery, pottery

    *chất lượng: extremity, validity, security

    *trạng thái/chất lượng: democracy, lunnacy, privacy, pregnacy


*tình trạng: abnormality, authenticity, brutality, creativity, curiosity, equality

ability, responsibility, accessibility, credibility, eligibility, feasibility, invincibility, possibility, sensibility


3) ** Trạng thái/Tình trạng **

--ance (V+):
*trạng thái/chất lượng: annoyance, attendance, tolerance, acceptance, appearance, assistance, assurance, entrance, insurance
PS: Adj-ant -- N-ance

ambience, competence, confidence, convenience, eloquence, eminence, innocence
PS: Adj-ent -- N-ence

*địa điểm/tình trạng: freedom, stardom, boredom, officialdom, wisdom
*vương quyền, lãnh địa: kingdom, Christendom, Dukedom, Earldom, Princedom

--ment (V+): 
*tình trạng: agreement, employment, enchantment, argument, achievement, encouragement, excitement, abandonment, accomplishment, acknowledgement, adjustment

--ion/tion/ation/ition (V+):
*trạng thái: action, production, collection, affection, ambition, combination, contribution, creation

     depression, confusion, tension, compulsion, conclusion, cohesion, decision

--ness (Adj+): 
*trạng thái: happiness, laziness, kindness, richness, heaviness, highness, sickness, rudeness, attractiveness, awareness, bitterness, blindness, loneliness

*có dạng thức/tính chất của: denial, fictional, regional, musical, accidental, logical, remedial, thermal, herbal

*có dạng thức/tính chất của: psychological, hypocritical, methodical, nonsensical, musical, historic, educational

*tính chất/tính cách: pious, jealous, religious, ridiculous, advantageous, adventurous, ambiguous, ambitious, anonymous


4) **Most common

*làm cho: strengthen, loosen, blacken, brighten, darken, freshen, deafen, lighten, moisten, quieten, sicken, slacken, sweeten, weeken
*chất liệu: earthen, golden, silken, wooden, woolen

*vị trí cực: topmost, northernmost, easternmost, innermost, lowermost, outermost, rearmost

        home-made, country-made, American-made, man-made

        humankind, womankind, mankind

        advertise, advise, arise, comprise, compromise

*hành động: apologize, characterize, criticze, emphasize, jeopardize
*tình trạng/điều kiện: tenderize, democratize, equalize, harmonize, neutralize, standardize, terrorize, vicitimize

*thái độ/cư xử: big-headed, cool-headed, empty-headed, hard-headed, hot-headed
*bên ngoài: bald-headed, black-headed, blond-headed, curly-headed, gold-headed, grey-headed

*strongest, tiniest, tallest, cleverest, biggest
*busiest, easiest, friendliest, happiest, liveliest, luckiest

*học thuyết/niềm tin: Judaism, Buddhism, Atheism, Feminism, Optimism, Feminism
*cách cư xử: absenteeism, cynicism, extremism, hooliganism, opportunism, patriotism, modernism, perfectionism
*tên người: Marxism, Thatcherism
*phân biệt: sexism, racism, ageism
*hành động/nghi thức: baptism, criticism, exorcism, satirism

--ed (V+):
    *already: played

--able (V+):
*khả năng/phẩm chất: reasonable, acceptable, unbelievable, changeable, touchable

--ible (V+)
digestible, comprehensible, collapsible, deductible, audible, edible, eligible, reversible, terrible, flexible, negligible, perceptible

     feet-first, head-first, heel-first

--hood (N+):
  childhood, neighborhood, motherhood, bachelorhood, adulthood, boyhood, widowhood

carefree, disease-free, dust-free, tax-free, carefree, duty-free, ice-free, nuclear-free, pollution-free, sugar-free

--less (V+):
*không có: tasteless, powerless, useless, fearless, helpless, hopeless, meaningless, mindless, spotless, airless, artless, characterless, childless, effortles, harmless
*vượt qua giới hạn: countless, priceless

--ing (V+):
*V: feeling, teaching, learning, walking, drinking, watching
*N: dancing, reading, cooking, reading
*Adj: interesting, exciting, disgusting, amusing, frightening, recurring, prevailing, ageing, cunning


*vật liệu: brickwork, ironwork, pastrywork, stonework
*hình dáng: latticework, basketwork, grillwork
*hoạt động: footwork, paperwork, brushwork, camerawork, legwork
*công việc: casework, course-work, homework, housework, schoolwork
*1 loại công việc cụ thể: day-work, desk-work, dockwork, farmwork, nightwork, shiftwork, shop-work, artwork, clockwork, framework

*quốc tịch, ngôn ngữ: English, Irish, Polish, Spanish, Swedish
*có chất lượng của, hơi hơi: childish, sheepish, whitish, yellowish, fattish, longish, oldish
*N: foolish, boyish, amateurish, womanish, owlish, Disneylandish
*tuổi tác, time: fortyish, nineish

--ive: có sự tự nhiên của
*Adj: informative, attentive, abortive, active, inquistive, aggressive, apprehensive, attractive, competitive, comprehensive, creative, defensive, effective
*N: detective, executive, initiative, perspective

   cat-like, childlike, prison-like, businesslike, warlike

*full of: bagful, boxful, fistful, teaspoonful, armful, handful, mouthful, plateful
*đặc điểm: beautiful, boastful, cheerful, deceitful, delightful, flavourful, forceful, graceful, playful, hopeful, skilful, thankful

    *relating to: iconic, organic, heroic, poetic, alcoholic, angelic, atomic, cubic

*bộ môn khoa học (không đếm được): physics, acoustics, economics, genetics, politics

    otherwise, likewise, clockwise, weatherwise, crosswise

*direction: towards, afterwards, backward, backwards, inward, outwards, forward, Eastward, seaward, skywards
*reward, leeward, coward

*chức vụ: ambassadorship, apprenticeship, authorship, chairmanship, ownership, stewardship, studentship, internship, citizenship, membership
*kĩ năng: craftsmanship, horsemanship, workmanship
*MQH: friendship, kinship, relationship, partnership
*tàu bè, phương tiện: battleship, spaceship, steamship, troopship, censorship, championship, courtship

*quá trình: blockage, breakage, coverage, marriage, shortage, shrinkage, wreckage, drainage, orphanage, salvage, outage
*đo lường: acreage, mileage, percentage

*vật nhỏ hơn: flatlet, ploylet, coverlet, cutlet, droplet, islet, piglet, streamlet
*đồ trang sức: anklet, armlet, ballet, bracelet, circlet, bullet

*lề, bờ: riverside, fireside, roadside, bedside, seaside
*1 phần của vật: passenger-side, grass-side, alongside, backside, beside, countryside, inside

*kích thước: apple-sized, cat-sized, child-sized, doll-sized, poster-sized, teaspoon-sized, postcard-size
*mô tả kích thước: average-size, fair-size, jumbo-size, middle-size, pint-size

*đặc tính: bothersome, adventuresome, burdensome, loathsome, lonesome
*cảm xúc: worrisome, troublesome, awesome, fearsome, irksome, tiresome
*tính chất: handsome, noisome


    mediate, collaborate, create, eradicate, detonate

    fixture, picture, pressure, signature

    anthology, apology

    simplify, modify

    strength, labyrinth, depth, warmth, growth

    *number+: twofold, threefold, eightfold

    *theo cách thức/giống với: picturesque, burlesque

    autograph, paragraph, photograph


III) Vừa là Tiền tố - vừa là Hậu tố

*bởi con người: hand-finished, hand-made, hand-written
*vận hành bằng tay, nhỏ: hand-mirror, handbag, handgun, hand-baggage
*tay: cup-hand, flashlight-hand, knife-hand, phone-hand,
*công việc: farm-hand, cow-hand, fieldhand, garage-hand
*vị trí: left-hand, right-hand

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*phương hướng, vị trí: down-hill, downriver, downstairs, downstream, downwind
*tồi tệ hơn: downfall, downgrade, downtrend, downturn
     bell-down, head-down, knee-down, nose-down

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*ngoài: off-campus, off-stage, off-field, off-road, off-shore, off-stage, offshore, off-track
*không đúng: off-balance, off-centre, off-peak, off-guard, off-key, off-season, off-license, off-limits, off-load, off-putting
    *tiền: well-off, badly-off, better-off, comfortably-off, worse-off

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Các bạn học bài vui vẻ nhé ^^!
Thân ^!^