Phần 3 của loạt bài viết về Xu hướng Công nghệ 2018 gồm có: 

4. Cốt lõi mới 
5. Thực tại Số 

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4. Cốt lõi mới: Giải phóng tiềm năng số trong hoạt động "trung tâm của hoạt động kinh doanh"

the heart of the business—back-office processes that offer opportunities to reinvent how daily work gets done—and harnessing emerging tech to build an enterprise ecosystem.
this is about constructing a new core in which automation, analytics, real-time analysis and reporting, and interconnections are baked into systems and processes, fundamentally changing how work gets done.


Rather than focusing on discrete tasks or individual tools, they will be broadly exploring how digital technologies can support global ecosystems, platform economies, complex operational networks, and new ways of working in the future.
blockchain’s distributed ledger offers a means for exchanging assets in an open, secure protocol, which has interesting implications for trade finance, supply chain validation processes, and other areas.
we are focusing on two areas with long histories of technology-enabled transformation: finance and supply chain.

Digital finance

Agile and efficient. In the digital finance model, new product integrations and upgrades can be fast and effective.
“Faster, cheaper, better.” Automation offers finance organizations opportunities to increase efficiencies and lower overall operating costs. Robotic process automation (RPA), for example, uses software programs to perform repetitive tasks and automate processes, such as procure-to-pay and order-to-cash. 
Information accessibility. Planners and analysts can “see” developing trends and circumstances that directly impact decision-making.
Automated insights in real time. The term cognitive computing describes an array of technologies including machine learning, natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, and artificial intelligence. 
Detailed insights and forecasts. Analytics has long been part of the finance arsenal, but new techniques are helping businesspeople tackle the crunchy questions with more insightful answers.
Super-sized data management capacity.
Digital trust. digital identities that verify their trustworthiness and store these identities in a blockchain where others can access but not alter them. Similarly, digital identities will be essential trust elements in blockchain-based digital contracts.

Digital finance in action


Digital supply networks

Traditionally, organizations have structured their supply chains to support a linear progression of planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and delivering goods.
an interconnected, open system of supply operations in which data flows through and around the nodes of the supply chain, dynamically and in real time. This interconnectedness is transforming staid, sequential supply chains into efficient and predictive digital supply networks (DSNs) with the following characteristics:
  • Always-on agility and transparency. Securely and in real time, DSNs integrate traditional datasets with data from sensors and location technologies. 
  • Connected community. DSNs allow multiple stakeholders—suppliers, partners, customers, products, and assets, among others—to communicate and share data and information directly, rather than through a gatekeeper.
  • Intelligent optimization. By connecting humans, machines, and analytics (both data-driven and predictive), DSNs create a closed loop of learning, which supports on-the-spot human-machine decision-making.
  • Holistic decision-making. When all supply chain processes become more transparent, the net result can be greater visibility, performance optimization, goal setting, and fact-based decision-making.
A centralized data hub operating within the DSN stack makes big-picture transparency possible.
An integrated DSN hub serves as a digital foundation that enables the free flow of information across information clusters. This hub, or digital stack, provides a single location to access near-real-time DSN data from multiple sources—products, customers, suppliers, and aftermarket support—thereby encapsulating multiple perspectives. It also includes multiple layers that synchronize and integrate the data.9

Skeptic’s corner

Misconception: waiting for my ERP vendor
Reality: The cognitive market is already showing signs of consolidating. You can’t afford to wait for the market to sort itself out. Your competition is already kicking the tires on existing products and laying the groundwork for a digital future.
Misconception: I have a robust finance system that allows me to see all numbers and processes in gory detail. 
Reality: CFOs can unburden these underused workers by using machine learning tools to automate the planning and forecasting processes. This can free finance talent to focus on generating real business insights.
Automation—with RPA, cognitive, and other dedicated tools—represents the future.
Misconception: top-notch. They should have no problem
Reality: The skills needed to operate finance and supply chains in a digital world are very different from traditional accounting and logistics skills. 

Risk implications

Supply chain risks
  • The risks around data encryption and confidentiality are still a concern: It is critical to protect data, both at rest and in transit, as well as in memory.
  • The use of open APIs can increase your network’s vulnerabilities; management of API-specific identities, access, data encryption, confidentiality, and security logging and monitoring controls are essential.
  • The risks of a traditional supply chain—counterfeiting, malicious modifications, threats to intellectual property—still apply in a digital supply network, while the digital footprint also requires securing the flow of intellectual property.
Finance risks
Some critical steps include the following:
  • Monitor and surveil bots and cognitive systems. An organization needs to verify a bot is acting as designed and intended. For instance, if a system with only read access were able to gain writeaccess, it could change data in the general ledger.
  • Carefully vet third-party capabilities and continuously monitor black box solutions. Third-party solutions can impose risks—from an initial vendor proof of concept to adhering to ongoing requirements. Further, “black box” solutions can pose significant infrastructure risk once given access to systems, processes, or data.
  • Customize approaches to validation and testing. Traditional periodic, point-in-time compliance testing and oversight may no longer be sufficient for cognitive technologies.
  • Escalate the importance of preventive and automated controls.Before cognitive solutions go live, they should undergo rigorous review boards, pre-authorization clearances, and impact analyses.

Global impact

Where do you start?

Creating a new core is neither a marathon nor a sprint—rather, it’s a series of sprints toward an overall destination. As you begin exploring digital possibilities, the following initial steps can help you get off to a good start.
  • Learn from others. If you haven’t already, create a small cross-functional team to help you understand the trend’s possibilities. Also, chances are, some of your peers in other parts of the company are already leading digital initiatives. Don’t reinvent the wheel—there is a lot you can learn from their experiences. Talk to your colleagues. Find out how transformation has reshaped their talent and operating models, and learn from successes they’ve had—and from their failures.
  • Make a plan. Map out a transformation plan for your function, focusing first on applications that have proven to be clear winners in other finance or supply chain organizations. This can serve as a master blueprint, but remember to execute it one step at a time. Things are changing fast in the digital world. Try to avoid making big bets until you know you are ready and you fully understand the potential risks.
  • Don’t just imagine tomorrow—get there from today. Before committing to bold visions of digital grandeur, consider the hardest part of the equation: Where do your people, organizational structure, processes, and technology fit in this brave new world? Many established assets can serve as building blocks for the new core. But make sure any modernization needs are well understood before provisioning budget and locking down milestones. Don’t limit the reality check to your “legacy,” either. For emerging and new technologies, you will likely have to move beyond the rhetoric of what’s real today, the path to enterprise scale and controls, and the pace of advancement. Build confidence in the when to invest, not just the where and the what.
  • Start cleaning up your use case data. Data is the lifeblood of the digital core—and a potential source of trouble in any new core initiative. In many companies, the data needed for use cases is siloed and rife with misspellings, duplicate records, and inaccuracies. Consider creating a cognitive data steward to automate the tedious process of examining problematic data and resolving issues. Also, be more proactive in the way you manage use case data. Adding metadata can enhance data context. Greater context, in turn, can help organizations group and process thematically similar information more efficiently, as well as enable increased process automation.


Most boardrooms lack the appetite to fund (or the patience to weather) expansive transformation agendas. This is especially true when the agendas in question focus on back-office institutional processes. Be that as it may, digital’s disruptive march across the enterprise continues apace. Fueled by digital innovation, the new core trend presents a host of potentially valuable opportunities to redefine heart-of-the-business work and establish a better foundation for customer-facing innovation and growth initiatives.
Bill Briggs is US chief technology officer of Deloitte Consulting LLP, based in Kansas City, Mo. 
Steven Ehrenhalt is a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP and is based in Miami.
Doug Gish leads Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Supply Chain and Manufacturing Operations and is based in Kansas City, Mo.
Nidal Haddad is a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP, based in Chicago.
Adam Mussomeli is a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP and is based in Stamford, Conn.
Anton Sher is a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP, based in Los Angeles.
Vivek (Vic) Katyal is the Global and US Risk Analytics leader with Deloitte and Touche LLP and is based in Minneapolis.
Arun Perinkolam is a principal with Deloitte and Touche LLP’s Cyber Risk Services practice, based in San Jose, Calif.

5. Thực tại số: Bước chuyển mình từ Công nghệ đến Cơ hội

digital reality—an amalgamation of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), mixed reality, 360°, and immersive technologies
International Data Corp. (IDC) projects that total spending on AR/VR products and services will soar from $9.1 billion in 2017 to nearly $160 billion in 2021, representing a compound annual growth rate of 113.2 percent
This trend may accelerate as three promising design breakthroughs are integrated into digital reality systems:
  • Transparent interfaces: A blend of voice, body, and object positioning capabilities will make it possible for users to interact with data, software applications, and their surrounding environments.
  • Ubiquitous access: Much like we enjoy with mobile devices today, in the near future AR/VR will likely provide an “always on” connection to the Internet or to enterprise networks.
  • Adaptive levels of engagement: You are attending a virtual meeting with colleagues and a loud 3D advertisement launches in your field of vision, disrupting your concentration and interrupting the meeting. 
Augmented reality (AR): Overlays digitally created content into the user’s real-world environment. Features include transparent optics and a viewable environment in which users are aware of their surroundings and themselves.
Virtual reality (VR): Creates a fully rendered digital environment that replaces the user’s real-world environment. Features body- and motion-tracking capabilities.
Mixed reality (MR): Seamlessly blends the user’s real-world environment and digitally created content in a way that allows both environments to coexist and interact. Utilizes advanced sensors for spatial awareness and gesture recognition.
Immersive: A deeply engaging, multisensory, digital experience, which can be delivered using VR, AR, 360° video, mixed reality, and other technologies. Formats vary.
Digital reality (DR): An umbrella term for augmented reality, virtual reality, mixed reality, 360°, and immersive technologies.

Five ( 5 ) big digital reality opportunities

As you explore digital reality’s potential for your organization, consider the following opportunity areas:
  • Connect: “Cooperation without co-location.” Teams will be able to work together on shared digital assets such as virtual whiteboards or digital models that can be manipulated in real time.
  • Know: Digital reality can offer knowledge workers—a broad term that basically applies to anyone using a computer—access to the specific information at the exact moment they need it to do their jobs. 
  • Learn: Some pioneering companies are using digital reality to immerse trainees in lifelike situations that would be too expensive or logistically impossible to recreate on the ground. 
  • Explore: Consumer-focused use cases are proliferating across the retail, travel-hospitality-leisure, and real estate sectors as vendors use digital reality to bring potential customers closer to the products, services, and experiences on offer. 
  • Play: Use cases and full deployments of DR technologies in gaming, storytelling, and live events are varied and numerous—and will likely become more so in the coming years.

Thị trường Thực tại Số

What does this mean for IT?

Storage. The amount of data required to render DR experiences is staggeringly large—and will grow even larger as technologies evolve and new functionality emerges
Core integration. Headgear manufacturers are designing APIs that tie core technologies and business processes into DR experiences. 
Analytics. track the gaze of an individual wearing an augmented reality headset and then, to discern user intent, analyze the data this tracking generates. Eventually it may be possible to use tracking analysis to drive advertising.
Bandwidth and networking. At present, few network operators can deliver the bandwidth speeds that AR/VR streaming and 360° experiences require.

Skeptic’s corner

Misconception: Digital reality in manufacturing? Field operations?
Reality check: “inside-out” tracking technology is poised to increase VR mobility. Some higher-end headsets use external cameras and sensors to track a VR user’s position within a room. inside-out tracking places sensors that read depth and perception cues on the headset itself, which allows users to escape the confines of sensor- and camera-filled rooms
Misconception: $850 for VR glasses?
Reality check: In late summer 2017, prices for major-label VR gear took a welcome nosedive.18 VR kits are running anywhere between $200 and $600, last time we checked.
Misconception: smartphones and tablets
Reality check:  Just as mobile has not replaced desktop and web applications, digital reality isn’t likely to replace mobile.

Lessons from the front lines

Google has identified four enterprise scenarios that show promise:
  • “Help me learn.” Google validated the technology’s power to educate with Google Expeditions, putting Cardboard headsets in schools to facilitate virtual field trips.
  • “Help me create.” In architecture and industrial design, the technology could enable real-time, collaborative discussion among professionals involved with a project.
  • Help me operate.” In the field, engineers could access the service history of specific equipment or written guidance for performing triage and repairs. 
  • “Help me sell.” One of the leading use cases for AR/VR is sales—most notably for demonstrating products, allowing interaction with digital product catalogs, and allowing buyers to get familiar with equipment prior to closing a deal.
R&D design times are being shortened by up to 20 percent.
The investments Google has made over the last three years in ARCore, Tango, and Cardboard, among others, have already enhanced the enterprise ecosystem
Companies across industries have found rich and varied applications for VR technology:
  • A multinational consumer goods corporation uses the technology as a merchandising aid, mocking up shelves with complementary products to assist multiple product-line owners in collaborative marketing efforts, as well as to present suggested display ideas to retailers.
  • Automaker Audi has outfitted showrooms with virtual models to educate customers on its vehicles’ inner workings as well as help them choose, and preview, thousands of model configurations and interior and exterior colors and fittings.
  • Cisco is experimenting with new collaboration tools by integrating its existing Cisco Spark product with VR technology. Remote teams can be “present” in the same room collaborating by writing on and pinning to either a virtual whiteboard or a connected whiteboard device that is on-premises. The resulting diagrams and content can be printed for reference.
  • Across industries, several organizations have begun to experiment with data visualization programs that allow users to immerse themselves in data with a 360-degree view, as well as with 3D versions of autoCAD that would allow designers to collaborate over a 3D rendering of a building, car, or engine.
  • Children’s Hospital Los Angeles is training residents in emergency care by simulating a realistic ER scenario in which they need to resuscitate an infant. Students try to diagnose and save the child by navigating emergency-room equipment and medications in a small space with a hysterical parent watching their every move.
virtual desktop, which unlocks the PC to turn a user’s desktop screen into a 720-degree command center that provides better access to information to do her job.
Unity Technologies is a leading game development platform, known for its Unity creation engine, which reaches more than 2 billion devices worldwide
digital reality tools. 3D environments and digital reality, auto designers can take simple physical mockups and augment them with design geometry, paint and material finishes, and even interactive capabilities in digital prototype equivalents. This can reduce the time to iterate, provide a more realistic experience, enable new ways to collaborate, be cost-effective, and ultimately improve product quality.

My take

Our existing online and job-shadowing training programs were replaced with a hands-on classroom experience called Walmart Academy, which will have trained approximately 220,000 associates in 200 sites across the country by the end of the year.
We designed the curriculum to be 25 percent in the classroom and 75 percent on the sales floor, so our people could gain hands-on experience using technology in real-life scenarios.
I’m not sure VR will ever be a 100 percent replacement for real-life sales floor situations, though there is value in being able to experience situations that are difficult to recreate, and using cutting-edge technology makes the experience fun and engaging for our associates.
Technology is reshaping the future of retail

Risk implications

One aspect to consider is protecting user identity and data.
VR equipment can also pose risks. With users relying on VR headsets and the content served to guide their actions and responses, it is critical to maintain the integrity of the data, device, and infrastructure to minimize physical harm, disorientation, and action triggered by erroneous information.
 It could also provide penetration testers with three-dimensional virtual threat models of applications, software, and solution blueprints.

Global impact

Where do you start?

Consider, instead, taking the following preliminary steps to lay the foundation for larger projects to come:
  • Learn more about the technology: Traditional IT skillsets offer little practical value to those working with AR, VR, 360°, and immersive technologies. Take this opportunity to upskill. Formal training or even a few hours spent with one of many development kits on the market can help you develop the skills and vocabulary you’ll need to kick devices’ tires and understand their value potential.
  • Speak a new language: Designing for digital reality requires embracing new patterns and perspectives along with a wholly different design vocabulary. It also requires new enabling tools and services to bring the experiences to life and make them work in the real world. High-definition 3D image capture and mapping equipment are emerging, thus accelerating developers’ abilities to recreate real-world physical environments with new AR/VR tools. Gaming engines are finding new purchase in the enterprise, with Unreal, Unity, and others being used to create simulations and virtual environments for AR and VR interaction.
  • Take a look around you: Across industries, companies and government agencies are developing use cases, piloting DR technologies, and in some cases moving toward production deployments. As you explore your organization’s possibilities, look first within your own sector. What are your competitors doing in this space? Likewise, what business goals are companies in adjacent sectors pursuing with their DR initiatives? Finally, your supplier, vendors, and business partners may be willing not only to discuss their own efforts but to provide their perspectives on potential use cases and opportunities that you can pursue jointly.
  • Don’t hold out for perfection: The pace of innovation in the DR space is accelerating and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. The consumer market is driving much of this innovation, but increasingly insights emerging from enterprise use cases, PoCs, and production deployments are influencing designs and driving the development of new capabilities. The “perfect” digital reality system does not exist—yet. But that should not keep you from exploring DR opportunities and developing use cases of your own. Remember: The shelf life of any given device needs to be only long enough to support its original purpose. The technology will evolve, as will your deployment strategies. It’s time to get started.


Allan Cook is the global and US technology, media, and telecommunications sector leader for Deloitte’s Operations Transformation practice, based in Los Angeles.
Ryan Jones is a principal with Deloitte Consulting LLP's Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality practice, based in Chicago.
Ash Raghavan is a principal in the US Deloitte Advisory practice, based in New York.
Irfan Saif is a principal with Deloitte & Touche LLP’s Cyber Risk Services practice, based in San Jose, Calif.

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